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The Role of Fluid Catalytic Cracking in Process
Optimisation for Petroleum Refineries
Petroleum refining is a chemical process in which raw material (crude oil) is converted into finished commercial products for end users. The fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit is a key asset in refineries that require optimized processes in the context of engineering design. Following the initial stage of separation of crude oil in a distillation tower, an additional 40 percent can be obtained in the gasoline pool by further conversion of the reduced crude oil product (remainder from the distillation tower) using a catalyst in the FCC process. . Effective removal of sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon and heavy metals from FCC gasoline requires higher separation efficiency and is of paramount environmental importance. The FCC unit is essentially a reactor and regeneration system that uses cyclone systems for separation.
It is a very complex system in terms of process modeling and simulation as well as control. The complexity of the system is attributed to its nonlinear multivariate nature, the strong interactions between the booster and regeneration reactors, and the uncertainty in the cracking reactions, coke deposition and coke combustion kinetics. The overall aim is to minimize coke formation to maximize the efficiency of high octane gasoline and diesel and make it economically attractive.
Asphaltic residue from used oil distillation
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